Topic list: Metabolism of lipids

 

  • Lipid-water interactions and their biological significance
  • Digestion and absorption of lipids.
  • General rules of lipid transport. Structure and functions of major lipoprotein classes.
  • Chylomicrons. Composition, formation, catabolism. Role of lipoprotein lipase.
  • VLDL. Composition, formation, catabolism.
  • LDL . Composition, metabolic fate. It’s role in the transport of cholesterol. LDL receptors and familial hypercholesterolemia /type II./
  • HDL. Composition, metabolic fate. It’s role in the transport of cholesterol.
  • Storage and mobilization of triacylglycerols. Regulation of both processes
  • Transport of fatty acids through the inner mitochondrial membrane. Regulation of the transport.
  • Beta oxidation of saturated fatty acids. The energetics of oxidation. Regulation of beta oxidation in the muscle and in the liver.
  • Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids with odd number of carbon atoms.
  • Biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids.
  • Regulation of fatty acid synthesis.
  • Role of the adipose tissue in the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
  • Synthesis of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The essential fatty acids. Conversion of linoleate to arachidonate.
  • Synthesis and metabolic fate of ketone bodies. Regulation of synthesis.
  • The physiological role of ketone bodies.
  • Synthesis of cholesterol. Synthesis and importance of cholesterol esters.
  • Regulation of cholesterol synthesis.
  • Metabolism of the bile acids. Synthesis, regulation of synthesis, enterohepatic circulation. Clinical aspects.
  • Biosynthesis of adrenal steroid hormones. Mineralocorticoid synthesis.
  • Steroid hormons of adrenal cortex. Steroid hormon receptors.  Signaltransduction mechanism of steroid hormone receptors. Classical or non-genomical actions of steroid hormones. Biosynthesis of glucocorticoids, effect of cortisol, regulation of cortisol synthesis, CAH (congenital adrenal hyperplasia).
  • Sexual hormons Biosynthesis of sexual hormones. The cyclic changes in the ovary, the cooperation of granolosa and theca interna cells.
  • Eicosanoid. prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. The cyclooxygenase and lipoxigenase pathway. Effect of eicosanoids: platelet aggregation, gastric mucosal protection, myometrial contractility, inflamation