Topic list - Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids

  1. Monosaccharides: functional groups, hemiacetal formation, conformation of pyranose and furanose rings. Structural formula of some important aldose: D-L glyceraldehyde, erythrose, ribose, deoxyribose, glucose, mannose, galactose.
  2. Asymmetric carbon atoms in monosaccharides, mutarotation, anomeric sugars. The structure of alfa-D-glucopyranose and beta-D-fructofuranose. Structural formula of important ketoses (dihydroxyacetone, ribulose, xylulose, fructose) and other sugars.
  3. Derivatives of sugars: deoxy sugars, amino sugars and their N-acetyl derivatives. O- and N-glycosides. Structural formula of deoxyribose, fucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid. Sugar phosphate esters.
  4. Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing disaccharides. Structure of sucrose, maltose, cellobiose and lactose.
  5. Polysaccharides I. structure of important homopolysaccharides (glycogen, starch, dextran, cellulose).
  6. Polysaccharides II. Structure of important heteropolysaccharides and their role in the living organism.
  7. Fatty acids: nomenclature, function, classification. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Essential fatty acids; function, physical properties Triacylglycerols, structure, function. Stereochemical numbering, prochirality.
  8. Phosphoglycerolipids: structure, function. Selected representatives. Ether phospholipids. Plasmalogens.
  9. Phosphosphingolipids: structure, function. Glycosphingolipids. Blood group antigens (ABO).
  10. Cholesterol and its reduced derivatives, nomenclature, stereochemical structure. Bile acids (primary, secondary, conjugated bile acids): structure and function. Application of their detergent effect.
  11. Steroid hormones. Structure, function. Vitamin D3 and its biologically active derivatives.
  12. Isoprene and its biologically active derivatives. Lipid soluble vitamins. Vitamin K2, vitamin E. their functions. Vitamin A and its derivatives, function. Coenzyme Q: reduced and oxidized form. Dolichol phosphate, role in glycoprotein synthesis.
  13. Arachidonic acid: structure. Eicosanoids: classification, functions.
  14. Membranes: fluidity, asymmetry, liposomes. Covalent lipid-protein conjugates: function, selected representatives.
  15. Ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides and -nucleotides. Their structure and nomenclature.
  16. Biological function of nucleotides (cyclic nucleotides, ATP, UDP-glucose cADP-ribose).
  17. Base, nucleoside and nucleotide analogues, minor and rare bases and their importance.
  18. Nucleic acids, their biological roles, general structural features. Primary structure of nucleic acids.
  19. Three dimensional structure of DNA. Its role in the biological function.
  20. Analysis of DNA(electrophoresis, blotting, sequencing).
  21. Three dimensional structure of various RNAs. The genetic code, codons and anticodons.
  22. Exo- and endonucleases and their role in DNA and RNA metabolism.
  23. Compounds of B-vitamin complex, Vitamin C and their biological roles. Thiamine, riboflavine, pyridoxine, cobalamine and their coenzyme derivatives.
  24. Vitamins belonging to nucleotides (CoA, NAD(P), FAD). Their role as coenzymes in the hydrogen or acyl group transfer. Other water soluble vitamins (folic acid, biotin). Their structure and function as coenzymes.