Topic list: Metabolism of carbohydrates


  • Major carbohydrate components of food. Their digestion and absorption. Lactose intolerance.
  • GLUT family glucose transporters (localisation, special characteristics and role).
  • The pathway and importance of anaerobic glycolysis. Major lactate producing cells and tissues.
  • Glucose phosphorylation. Its role in the metabolism of the cell. The different regulation of the isoenzymes.
  • Hormonal and allosteric regulation of glycolysis in the liver.
  • Energetics of aerobic and anaerobic glucose catabolism. Metabolic efficiency, participation of oxidative and substrate-level phosphorylation.
  • Molecular mechanism and metabolic rationale of Pasteur-effect.
  • Which non-carbohydrate precursors can be converted to glucose, in which organs and how?
  • Compartmentation of gluconeogenesis. The glucose-6-phosphatase system and von Gierke's disease.
  • Hormonal and allosteric regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver.
  • The importance of the different regulation of pyruvate kinase isoenzymes in liver (PK-L) and muscle (PK-M). Other points of coordinating the hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
  • Hepatic metabolism of fructose. The regulatory/toxic effects of fructose-1-phosphate.
  • What is the fate of fructose in essential fructosuria? Metabolic consequences of fructose intolerance. What is the pathomechanism of hypoglycemia and hyperuricemia in hereditary fructose intolerance?
  • Entry of galactose into the glycolytic-gluconeogenetic pathway. Galactose intolerance.
  • UDP-galactose production from glucose in extrahepatic tissues. The role of UDP-galactose. Localisation, structure and function of lactose synthase.
  • The oxidative branch of pentose-phosphate pathway. Its special role in the "biological oxidation" and its regulation.
  • The non-oxidative branch of pentose-phosphate pathway. The co-operation of the two branches in various conditions.