Topic list - Amino Acid and Nucleotide Metabolism

  1. Degradation of proteins in the gastro-intestinal tract (exo-, and endopeptidases, main characteristics of Ser-proteases). Transport of amino acids.
  2. L-glutamate dehydrogenase. The role of glutamic acid in the deamination of amino acids, transdeamination.
  3. The role of aspartate in the metabolism of N-containing compounds. Purine nucleotide cycle.
  4. Transamination. Mechanism, metabolic importance, the role of pyridoxal phosphate.
  5. The transport of ammonia, the role of glutamine and alanine (the intercellular glutamine cycle). Glutamine synthesis and the loss of the amide-group.
  6. Urea cycle. Reactions, regulation, metabolic disorders.
  7. Glucoplastic and ketoplastic amino acids: the metabolic intermediates produced from the carbon skeletons of amino acids.
  8. Amino acids forming pyruvate (mechanisms).
  9. Amino acids forming succinyl-CoA (mechanisms).
  10. Amino acids forming alpha-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate (mechanisms).
  11. The catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine (main intermediates and enzyme defects).
  12. The role of methionine as a methyl group donor in biosynthetic reactions, the metabolism of methionine, hyperhomocysteinemia.
  13. The role of folate coenzymes in the metabolism.
  14. The synthesis of nonessential amino acids: serine, cysteine aspartate, alanine, glutamate.
  15. The „de novo" synthesis of ornithine and prolin.
  16. The metabolism of glycine. The synthesis of creatine.
  17. The biosynthesis of heme, regulation of heme biosynthesis.
  18. The catabolism of heme, formation and metabolism of bile pigments.
  19. The catabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. The formation and metabolic importance of "active sulphate"
  20. Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate.
  21. The sources of the constituent atoms of the purine ring. Synthesis and regulation of purine nucleotides.
  22. The structure and role of the active form of folic acid in the synthesis of nucleotides. The synthesis of thymidilate. The molecular basis of the actions of the antimetabolites of folic acid.
  23. The biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides and its regulation in mammalian tissues.
  24. The biosynthesis and regulation of deoxyribonucleotides.
  25. Salvage reactions in the metabolism of purine nucleotides. The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.
  26. The degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Metabolic diseases in the catabolism of purines.
  27. The pathogenesis and consequences of hyperammonemias.
  28. The effect of per os and parenteral administration of cyanocobalamin on the amino acid metabolism. Symptoms and their molecular background in vitamin B12 deficiency.