Topic list

Topics of Biochemistry final exam for 3rd year students of Pharmacy in 2013/14 fall semester


Classification of amino acids. Determination of sequence  of proteins. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins and determination of the structures. Methods of purification of proteins. Denaturation and renaturation of proteins. Protein expression systems.

Myoglobin and hemoglobin: characteristics, oxygen saturation. Effect of 2,3-BPG, Bohr-effect. Hereditary and aquired problems with hemoglobin.

Theory of the action, thermodynamics, selectivity, active site of enzymes. Induced fit model. Mechanism of action of enzymes: covalent, acid-base and metal  ion catalysis, proper proximity.

Enzyme kinetics: Michaelis-Menten model, equation and graph. Inhibitions. Enzyme activity units, turnover number, kcat/KM. Optimal conditions of enzyme activity.

Regulation of enzymes: allosterically, by covalent modification, by proteolysis, by compartmentation and regulation of the amount. Methods of the examination of enzyme action, inhibitors, analogues.

Basic theory of  metabolism, coupled reaction, high group transfer potential compounds. Sturucture and function of TPP, FAD, NAD, CoA, PLP, biotin, THF. Active form of the carrier molecules. Classification of the enzymes.

Classification and characteristics of carbohydrates. Glycoproteins and proteoglycans: types, role, synthesis.

Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (starting from amino acids, lactate etc.): reactions, regulation, energetics. Substrate level phosphorylation. Glucose transporters. Metabolism of galactose and fructose, enzymopathies.

Reaction, regulation, role of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Reaction, regulation, catabolic role, anabolic role of citric acid cycle. Anaplerotic reactions.

Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, compositition of electron transport chain. Action, structure of ATP synthase. Inhibitors. Substrate anion carriers, H-carrier shuttles.

Pentose phosphate pathway: reactions, significance, regulation.

Significance, synthesis, degradation of glycogen. Regulation in different organs.

Synthesis, degradation and salvage reactions of nucleotides, enzyme defects.

Degradation of proteins, digestion. Degradation of amino acids, glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids. Urea cycle: reactions, regulation, localization, enyme deficiencies.

Synthesis of amino acids. Transamination: role of PLP. Role of THF. Deficiency of amino acid(s).

β-oxidation, synthesis, elongation, desaturation of fatty acids. Metabolism of ketone bodies.

Composition of cell membranes. Synthesis and degradation of phospholipids, sphingolipids. Synthesis of cholesterol: beginning with formulas, regulation. Lipoproteins: structure, metabolism.

Synthesis of steroid hormons: corticosteroids and sexual hormons. Enzymes, mechanisms, localization.

Synthesis and role of bile acids. Enterohepatic circulation.

Biochemistry of blood clotting and fibrinolysis, their regulation. Role of endothel and thrombocyte. Mechanism of the effect of medicines in hemostasis.

Phases of biotransformation. Oxidation by cytochrome P450 enzyme system: metabolism of lipids and xenobiotics. Conjugation reactions.

Flow of genetic information. Structure and determination of the structure of DNA.

Recombinant DNA technology: restriction endonucleases and RFLP, gel electrophoresis and blotting, DNA sequencing, DNA synthesis, PCR, cloning. Structure of human genome. Gene knock out.


Mechanism of procaryotic and eucaryotic DNA replication. Causes and types of mutation, DNA repair.

Types, role and structure of procaryotic and eucaryotic RNAs. Mechanism of the RNA transcription, maturation.

Steps of procaryotic and eucaryotic protein synthesis. Protein sorting in cells.

Phases of cell cycle, role of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases  and other proteins. Regulatory points in cell cycle.

Features of apoptosis. Steps of apoptosis signalled by external or internal signs.

Signal transduction pathways  in the cell: monomeric and heterotrimeric G proteins, cAMP and PKA, Ca2+ ,  IP3,  Ca-calmodulin, PKC, MAPK cascade, tyrosine kinases, insulin, NO.

Definition, types, activation of oncogens. Detection of cellular oncogens. Life cycle of retroviruses. Tumor suppressor genes, the role of p105Rb and p53 proteins. The role of telomerase in oncogenesis. Formation of tumors.

Intermedier metabolism of red blood cells. Intermedier metabolism of kidney, characteristics of cortex and medulla of kidney. Biochemistry of muscle. Types of fibers and their metabolism. Characteristics of carbohydrate-, lipid-, and amino acid metabolism of muscle. Purine nucleotide cycle.

Metabolic features of adipose tissue in well-fed and starving state. Metabolic characteristics of central nervous system (carbohydrate-, lipid-, amino acid metabolism). Cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. Glutamate as neurotransmitter, connection of glutamaterg neurotransmission and the metabolism.

Biochemistry of well-fed state – metabolic communication between organs, regulation of metabolism in liver by allosteric modificators, by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and by gene expression. Biochemistry of starvation, different stages of fasting – metabolic communication between organs, regulation of metabolism in liver by allosteric modificators, by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and by gene expression.


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