List of structures


The 10 structures asked at the semifinal exam will be selected from the following list

Inorganic acids and other compounds: sulfuric acid, sulfurous acid, nitric acid, nitrous acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hypochlorous acid, chlorous acid, chloric acid, perchloric acid, hypobromous acid, bromous acid, bromic acid, perbromic acid, hydrogen cyanide, metaphosphoric acid, orthophosphoric acid, boric acid, carbonic acid, water, ammonia, hydrazine, hydroxylamine, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, pyrophosphate anion, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, hydroxyapatite, fluoroapatite, ferrous ammonium sulfate

Any inorganic salts and  bases formed by the following cations and anions:

Cations: ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ferrous, ferric, cuprous, cupric, zinc, silver, aluminium, mercurous, mercury, manganese

Anions: hydroxide, oxide, fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfide, sulfate, sulfite, hydrogen sulfate, thiosulfate, nitrate, nitrite, hypochlorite, chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate, hypobromite, bromite, bromate, perbromate, cyanide, phosphate, monohydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, carbonate, hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate), permanganate, chromate, ferricyanide

Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes and alkynes (up to carbon number 8, both normal- and branched-chain isomers); 1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene)

Aromatic rings: benzene, naphtalene, phenantrene, pyrrole, thiophene, furane, thiazole, oxazole, imidazole, pyrazole, pyridine, pyrane, pyrazine, pyrimidine, purine, indole, pteridine, acridine

Small organic compounds: methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, inositol, phenol, diethylether, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, mercaptoethanol, aniline, urea, guanidine

Organic acids: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, caproic acid, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid, pyruvic acid, acetoacetic acid, citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, isocitric acid, a-ketoglutaric acid, malic acid, oxaloacetic acid

Types of bondings and derivatives: ether, phenolether, thioether, ester, lactone, thioester, anhydride (including mixed and phosphoric acid anhydrides), hemiacetale, hemiketale (cyclic forms included), Schiff-base, oxime, hydrazone, hydroxamic acid, amide, thiol, sulfinic acid, sulfonic acid, sulfoxide, acyl chloride.